August 8th, 2004

A Short Introduction to Classes


Why we need classes. Their scope. What are classes: definition and discussion of classes. Functionality. More discussion. Examples. Conclusions.


Since the invention of the computers the poor programmers have been taxed in their time by demanding customers and giant programs. In the late 80s and early 90s was still alive the legend of the one-man-project. Anyway the programming world has been filled with hundreds of languages. Among these there were the B, BCPL and CPL (Combined Programming Language), but none of these nor any other language, fulfilled the common programmer needings. So one day in the Bell Labs woke up a guy called Ritchie and announced to the world he had a solution: the C language. That was pretty good: powerful, flexible, it offered high level abstraction, mid-level programming, and also low-level programming so to allow system programming.

All these languages had a structural skill: they were procedural languages. They could not genetically manage Events and Messages. With the advent of the Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) this problem became more stringent. So a beautiful day of mid-spring came out a guy, names Bjarne Stroustrup, who forced the programmers to drink coffee by buckets. Through the implementation of a new language, the C++, he introduced the idea of OOP and classes.

I Had Enough Classes at High School

One of the problems was that a data structure was publicly accessible by other components of the program. That was risky, a programmer could easily loose control on the data coherence.

There was the needing to wrap the data in a container, a container moreover enforced by rules. Overall it would be nice if there was a way to re-use already written components. It would be nicer to add to a component - maybe written by third parties - new behaviors. So the purposes of the OOP are three: a) Encapsulation; b) Inheritance; c) Polymorphism. More on this later.

Now we have classes. A class can be defined as a data structure souped with functions, all together. In OOP we call attributes the data, while the functions are called methods. These two things - attributes and methods - form a class. Among the methods we distinguish between accessor and modifier.

With the purpose that not every code stub can be allowed to manipulate data, usually we assign to the attributes the flag private. And we allow only some of the methods to manipulate those data, so that be saved the data integrity. For example lets say we have a class called Car, with attributes brandName, model, color :
class CCar
  string brandName;
  string model;
  string color;

  CCar( brandName = Ford, model = Taurus, color = Pink);

  // accessor function
  string brandName();
  string color();
  string model();

  // modifier function
  void setBrandName( string);
  void setModel( string);
  void setColor( string);
The first thing to notice is I called it CCar: it is good rule to prefix the name of the class with a capital C. This is optional but adds clarity. While what is mandatory is the semicolon after the closing curling bracket, at least in C++ . As you can see the class Car has 3 attributes that are private, plus some methods to manipulate those attributes, methods that are public. So that among the methods only those declared public can access the private data. An other thing is the methods are divided in two groups: accessor and modifier. The first group usually is used to return the value of an attribute, while the second one is used to change a value. This was about encapsulation.

Object Oriented Programming

Now lets become familiar with an other concept. A class is the description of an object and how it relates with the external world. Just a description, a template in which to stuff the data and its behaviors. At run-time we need something that is a Car, probably several, not a schema. This is the idea of object. An object is an instance of a class. For this purpose, after the keyword public and before the accessor methods, you can notice three strange methods that have the same name of the class. Inasmuch we have seen we need to instantiate the object of a class, we need a mean to do an instance. The first method is called constructor. It has something in between its parenthesis. More on this later. Sometime programmers either forget to instantiate an object, or simply declare it statically. So we need something called a default constructor, thats the second method, the one with nothing in parenthesis.

Inasmuch the C++ language strongly demonstrates the proverb "There is no such thing like a free meal out here", it has no such thing called garbage collector. We need something to destroy the object after its been used. Thats called destructor, the method with a preceding tilde in its name. It is responsibility of the programmer to destroy the object after its use.

So we have seen how to describe an object, how to talk with it, how it answers. All this stuff is like in the real world, to send a message and to get an answer. In answer to an event we sent a message and the object returns an other message. Indeed the accessor methods return a string. This is how we communicate with objects. And for this reason its called programming oriented to the objects. A dozen years of experimentation showed this is very useful in the industrial software production.

Before going further, lets shortly say that it could happen the most part of cars we deal which is of the same brand name, model and color. So we can save time simply invoking the constructor with no actuals, and provide some default values for the attributes. This is the meaning of a pink Ford Taurus, admitted that Ford made pink Tauruss.

Polymorphism & Inheritance

So now we have this object called Car, of which we can read/write the attributes. But they are only three: what if after some use we need a new attribute: the mileage of the car? There is a procedure to derive from the class Car another class that include the further attribute: int mileage, and to add some methods to deal with it. So the class Car becomes a base class, and the new one is a derived class . This procedure is called Inheritance.

And this procedure can also be repeated. If we had started from a generic class called CTransportationMean, from which we derived transportation means with or without wheels, we would have had the following diagram:
Class Diagram
Now lets suppose that the designer of the base class CTransportationMean foresaw an attribute called float pricePerKilometer, and its related methods called float pricePerKilometer() and void setPricePerKilometer( float) . Now when we derive the class CBoat, it happens that the marine mile has a different length from the terrestrial kilometer, so the calculus of the price per unit of distance of a boat is different.

We can arrange the things to change the method to calculate the cost, for both the derived class CWheels and CNoWheels. The ability to answer to the same message with different behavior is called polymorphism, from the ancient Greek poly: many and morph: forms, so it means many forms, the capability to change, flexibility.


For sure this kind of analysis, when made before beginning to write a program, is a different approach from a procedural language to a OOP language. It helps a lot in reducing the probability to insert errors in the code. The first stage, the analysis, is long but it saves time later.

An other way to do less mistakes is to do the analysis with methods and procedures to model the attributes and the behaviors of the objects involved in our application, and divide and schedule our steps to reach the goal. We need a previous stage language. This has been invented, name is Uniform Modeling Language, or UML. Its highly used in the industry.

Of course C++ is not the only language to deal with objects. There are many others like Eiffel, Ada, SmallTalk and the last lil Java. After 25 years of programming I can affirm two things: C++ is high malleable, sometime may have a dark syntax, but is very fast. Two, Java looks to remain something good to program washing machines and cell phones. And I would risk a small prophecy: if doesnt open Java to the open source and release the code, it will keep to have such a short range of use.

C++ has lot more, but to talk of how it favored the development of the GUIs, or to talk of Templates and Standard Template Library, STL - is out of the scope of this paper.


Vincenzo Maggio